A brief history of bioinformatics
Jeff Gauthier, Antony T. Vincent, Steve J Charette and Nicolas Derome
Briefings in Bioinformatics | https://doi.org/10.1093/bib/bby063
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Here we present an integrative timeline of key events in bioinformatics and related fields during the past half-century, as well as some background on parallel advances in molecular biology and computer science, and some reflections on the future of bioinformatics.
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Northern ecosystems are facing unprecedented assaults resulting from direct (e.g. industrial activities, such as mining and hydroelectricity) and indirect (global warming) anthropogenic activities, thus amplifying the risk of disturbing essential ecosystem services mediated by microbial communities (nitrogen cycle, primary production) and contaminate the whole food web. Because gut microbiota is critically implicated in modulating the host response to contaminants and toxins, such bio-accumulated contaminants (e.g. iron, mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium, arsenic and manganese) are expected to have serious consequences on major host functions such as immune response, energetic performance and development. Furthermore, there are enough results suggesting that climate change could alter stages and rates of development of endemic pathogens, modify host resistance, and result in changes in the physiology of host-pathogen interactions. Because microbiota constitutes the first immune barrier by both producing specific antimicrobial compounds and outcompete invasive microbes for host resources, it is crucial to develop a sentinel model for studying skin and gut microbiota resilience when facing allochthonous pathogens in controlled conditions.